Diet and Eating Pattern

Diet and Eating Pattern

See grocery shopping guide for maintaining a low fat, low sugar diet with unlimited vegetables, white meats; whole grains in moderation (never be hungry or you may indulge in the wrong food).
Keep track of your weight, height and BMI.

Ask your doctor if you are a candidate for bariatric surgery especially if your BMI is greater than 35 kg/m².

If you do have that surgery you will require life long follow up and careful monitoring.

(Diabetes Care, Volume 32, Supplement 1, January 2009)

BMI is defined as the weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters (kg/m²)

Normal BMI (according to World Health Organization) is defined as 18.5-24.9 kg per square meter.

Overweight is defined as body mass index (BMI) 25-29.9 kg per square meter.

Obesity is defined as BMI greater than 30 kg per square meter.

Extreme obesity is BMI 40 kg per square meter or higher.

Weight Reduction toward normal BMI is recommended because it will decrease blood pressure and may also reduce the risk of stroke.
BMI Guidelines

• There are an estimated 300 million obese adults worldwide.
• More than 1 billion adults are overweight globally.
• According to WHO estimates, the number of overweight (BMI 25-30) and obese (BMI >30) individuals are set to increase to 1.5 billion by 2015 based on current trends.
(World Health Organization Obesity Facts)

Obesity is the major risk factor for cardiovascular disease which claims more than 17 million lives a year globally.
142 million people in the United States are estimated to be overweight and obese.

Obesity may be responsible for 300,000 deaths yearly in the United States.
Any weight loss (even 5-15%) may reduce risk for heart disease by lowering blood pressure, blood sugar and cholesterol levels.
(Surgeon General Obesity Facts and Consequences)
There was a 17-27% risk reduction for all coronary heart disease, fatal coronary heart disease, and stroke in individuals following the DASH style diet. That was high intake of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, and legumes and lower intake of red and processed meats, sweetened beverages, and sodium.

(Fung TT, et al. Adherence to a DASH-style diet and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke in women. Arch Intern Med 2008; 168: 713-720)
Individuals age 70-90 years adhering to a Mediterranean diet and healthy lifestyle: increased physical activity, moderate alcohol use, non-smoking, and following a Mediterranean style diet [increasing consumption of vegetables, fruits, whole grains, fish, low fat dairy, nuts, olive oils] appeared to have a 50% lower rate of all-cause and cause-specific mortality. (Coronary heart disease, cardiovascular disease and cancer).
(Mediterranean Diet, Lifestyle Factors, and 10-Year Mortality in Elderly European Men and Women. Kim T. B. Knoops, JAMA. 2004; 292:1433-1439, Mediterranean Diet for Heart Health )

Consumption of red meat twice a day was associated with a 26% increase in the risk of the metabolic syndrome (Abdominal obesity, i.e. a waist circumference of 40 inches or greater in men or 35 inches or greater in women, elevated serum triglycerides of 150 mg/dL or greater, HDL cholesterol of 40 mg/dL or lower in men and 50 mg/dL or lower in women, blood pressure 130/85 mm Hg or greater, and fasting glucose of 100 mg/dL or greater). Increased consumption of fried foods was associated with a 25% increase in the development of the metabolic syndrome.
(Two Hamburgers, an Order of Fries, and the Metabolic Syndrome to Go, Please!)

(Lutsey PL, et al. Dietary intake and the development of the metabolic syndrome. Circulation 2008; DOI:10.1161/ circulation.aha.107.716159.)

According to a report from the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and American Institute for Cancer Research (AICR), eating a balanced, nutritious diet, maintaining physical activity and decreasing body fat may allow some prevention of the following cancers – endometrial cancer: 70%, esophageal cancer: 69%, cancer of the mouth, pharynx and larynx: 63%, stomach cancer: 47%, colorectal cancer: 45%, pancreatic cancer: 39%, breast cancer: 38%, lung cancer: 36%, kidney cancer: 24%, cancer of the gallbladder: 21%, cancer of the liver: 15%, cancer of the prostate:11%.

There could be 24% prevention of all cancers.

(2007 Expert Reports; Findings from Policy and Action for Cancer Prevention – Food, Nutrition, and Physical Activity: a Global Perspective; World Cancer Research Fund; American Institute for Cancer Research)